Celebrating Juneteenth at the Alamo Research Center
Since the 1860s, June 19 has been recognized in Texas as Juneteenth. The day has been a state holiday since 1980.
Juneteenth marks the day in 1865 that Union forces under Union Major General Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston to enforce Lincoln’s 1863 Emancipation Proclamation. Major General Granger announced General Orders No. 3 which stated that, “”The people are informed that in accordance with a Proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property, between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them, become that between employer and hired labor.” Under the orders, most freedmen were required to continue working for the masters for whom they already labored. The announcement also took several months to spread throughout Texas, and the Union Army in Texas was small enough that it was sometimes difficult to enforce. Nevertheless, over the years, Juneteenth has come to represent the voice of African Americans celebrating their autonomy and cultural heritage.
Come to the Alamo Research Center to explore the history of slavery and freedmen in Texas: